Animation Notes from Ollie Johnston

Here are some very excellent notes by Ollie Johnston written down by Glen Keane. They are a great source of inspiration. Even though the notes were originally meant for hand-drawn animation, they still apply and are applicable towards computer animation. 1. Don't illustrate words or mechanical movements. Illustrate ideas. 2. Squash and stretch entire body for attitudes. 3. If possible, make definite changes from one attitude to another in timing and expression. 4. What is the character thinking? 5. It is the thought and circumstances behind the action that will make the action interesting. (example: A man walks up to a mailbox, drops in his letter and walks away. OR A man desperately in love with a girl far away carefully mails a letter in which he has poured his heart out.) 6. When drawing dialogue, go for phrasing. (simplify the dialogue into pictures of the dominating vowel and consonant sounds, especially in fast dialogue.) 7. Lift the body attitude 4 frames before dialogue modulation (but use identical timing on mouth as on X sheet). 8. Change of expression and major dialogue sounds are a point of interest. Do them, if at all possible, within a pose. If the head moves too much you won't see the changes. 9. Don't move anything unless it's for a purpose. 10. Concentrate on drawing clear, not clean. 11. Don't be careless. 12. Everything has a function. Don't draw without knowing why.13. The facial expression should not be contradicted by the body. The entire pose should express the thought. 14. Get the best picture in your drawing by thumbnails and exploring all avenues. 15. Analyze a character in a specific pose for the best areas to show stretch and squash. Keep these areas simple. 16. Picture in your head what it is you're drawing. 17. Think in terms of drawing the whole character, not just the head or eyes, etc. Keep a balanced relation of one part of the drawing to the other. 18. Stage for most effective drawing. 19. Draw a profile of the drawing you're working on every once in a while. A profile is easier on which to show the proper proportions of the face. 20. Usually the break in the eyebrow relates to the highpoint of the eye. 21. The eye is pulled by the eyebrow muscles. 22. Get a plastic quality in face - cheeks, mouth, and eyes. 23. Attain a flow through the body rhythm in your drawing. 24. Simple animated shapes. 25. The audience has a difficult time reading the first 6-8 frames in a scene. 26. Does the added action in a scene contribute to the main idea in that scene? Will it help sell it or confuse it? 27. Don't animate for the sake of animation but think what the charater is thinking and what the scene needs to fit into the sequence. 28. Actions can be eliminated and staging "cheated" if it simplifies the picture you are trying to show and is not disturbing to the audience. 29. Spend half your time planning your scene and the other half animating. 30. How to animate a scene of a four-legged character acting and walking: Work out the acting patterns first with the stretch and squash in the body, neck, and head; then go back in and animate the legs. Finally, adjust the up and down motion on the body according to the legs.